Jane's Oceania Home Page Newsletter & Jane's Pacific Islands Radio Newsletter
November/December 2011
(combined Newsletters until January 2012)
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Christmas 2011/New Year Year 2012 Special Edition:

 

Jane's Oceania Home Page Newsletter &
Jane's Pacific Islands Radio Newsletter
(combined Newsletters until January 2012)
Vol. 10, Edition No. 18, November/December 2011
www.janeresture.com

www.janesoceania.com
www.ourpacificocean.com
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I N   T H I S   I S S U E ____________________________________

Objectives
News and Views
Pacific Islands Radio
Notice Board
Oceania Resources
About Books
Coming Events
Special Feature-People*
Recollections and Memoirs
Feature Web Sites
Oceania Web Sites
Interesting Places
Interesting Links
Letters
It's Time to Chat
Comments And Contributions

T H E  V I E W _________________________________
News and Views from Oceania
Welcome everybody to our Newsletter for November/
December 2011!

It has certainly been some time since our last Newsletter 
and I must say that, as usual, it is just great to be back in
touch with everybody once again. Please let me take this
wonderful opportunity to very sincerely wish everybody
all the very best.

My heartfelt thanks go to our many valued members
who have taken the time to write and for sharing so
much with us all. Words cannot adequately express
my deepest appreciation and gratitude for your most
welcome contributions and very kind support.

Once again, please join me in extending a very warm
and sincere Oceania/Pacific Island welcome to all our
new members who have joined us since our last 
September/October 2011 Newsletter! I would most
sincerely like to welcome you all on board! As always,
please make yourselves feel at home, sit back, relax,
and may your stay and time with us be most enjoyable,
mutually beneficial and most rewarding!

OBJECTIVES

The objective of this Newsletter is to promote
worldwide the Pacific Islands and, in particular,
the island people. In addition, the intention of
the Newsletter is to aid in the preservation of
our island culture, history, genealogy, mythology,
ethnology, anthropology, customs, etc. including
rituals and lifestyles.

In doing this, the Newsletter shares and makes
available a wide selection of rare, historical and
contemporary postcards, along with extensive
picture galleries of the countries and the people
of Oceania. These are still being extensively
upgraded and are of tremendous interest and
value to people who are interested in the history
of Oceania, as well as to our Oceania/Pacific
Island people who wish to gain a greater
appreciation of their beautiful island heritage.
http://www.janeresture.com/oceania_resources/postcards.htm

In addition, the Newsletter introduces some of
the many lesser known beautiful, important and
very interesting islands and places of the Pacific/
Oceania region.
http://www.janeresture.com/home/index.htm
 
NEWS AND VIEWS
The Pacific Islands Forum gathering in Auckland
last September was most notable not so much for
what it did, but for what it did not do. Indeed it would
be fair to say that the Forum ended with a whimper
rather than a bang given some of the most pressing
issues the region is facing were completely ignored.
 
Fiji’s suspension was not lifted, lacklustre Forum
Secretary General Neroni Slade was not replaced,
and delegates did not agree to back the placing of
French Polynesia on the United Nations' list of non-
decolonised territories. All three decisions reflect
the dominance of Australia and New Zealand over
the regional summit, which also brings together the
leaders of fourteen Pacific Island states.
 
In addition, West Papua’s self-determination failed
to rate a mention, in spite of a high profile protest for
human rights and a public plea for a United Nations
special representative. The communiqué released 
mentioned nothing of the fledgling and troubled Pacific
colony ruled by Indonesia, despite the regional body’s
heavy rhetoric so far on human rights and self-
determination. This did not, however, prevent the
Forum leaders from considering French Polynesia
in its bid for decolonization. The bid was aimed at 
getting Forum support for the territory to be re-inscribed
on the UN decolonisation list after being removed by
France in 1947.
 
Fifteen human rights and social justice movements
based in Australia and New Zealand called on the
United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
to immediately appoint a special United Nations
representative to investigate alleged human rights
violations in West Papua and its political status.
Australian Prime Minister Gillard said no more than
that she would refer to the communiqué "regarding
applications to the Forum as observers".
 
On the issue of Tahiti independence, member churches
of the Pacific Conference of Churches (PCC) at their
recent meeting in Samoa have pledged their support
to Maohi Nui (Tahiti) in her struggle to gain independence
from France. 'Maohi Nui’ is a name that refers to the
indigenous people of French Polynesia in the language
of the archipelago's most famous island, Tahiti.
 
President Oscar Temaru of Tahiti, in a  special address
to the PCC church leaders, appealed to the churches
of the Pacific to help in his country’s fight for independence,
by listening to and aiding the people of Maohi Nui in their
plight. Mr. Temaru presented the historic and continuing
oppression of the indigenous Maohi people at the hands
of the French authorities from 1880 to the present day. 
 
President Temaru called upon PCC to actively support
Maohi Nui’s quest for self determination and compensation
for the nuclear testing during the 1970s. The church leaders
in attendance were unanimous in their support of this call.
Mr. Temaru noted, however, that: "Without the UN as a
referee between France and us, this is once again an unfair
and uphill battle. We seek a balanced evolution of our
relations with France, under the observation of the UN."
 
The PCC said that they would stand beside people under
colonial rule and walk with them in their journey towards
a future of their own choosing. It is unacceptable that in
this day and age we continue to accept the existence of
colonies in the Pacific region.
 
On the positive side, Australia has pledged $200
million to Pacific Island nations to tackle education,
health and environmental issues. The biggest component
of the spending is $152 million for the continued running
of a network of training colleges in Papua New Guinea,
Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu.
 
Australia will also spend $500,000 on encouraging the
people of Kiribati to play basketball, volleyball and
football as part of an initiative to address chronic
conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Australia would also spend $13.5 million on alleviating
the effects of climate change in the Pacific, including
the planting of mangroves on Kiribati and other water
supply, agricultural and coastal maintenance projects
in the region.
 
Also mentioned were the pressing issues of violence
against women and children, corruption, poor maternal
health and infant mortality statistics, governance training
and educational achievements. It was also recognised
that women were seriously underrepresented in Pacific
parliaments, and they have also struggled to have their
voices heard at the Forum. Where does that leave them?
Millennium Development Goals for maternal health,
infant mortality, access to health services and education
will never be achieved if women's voices are not heard.
 
Finally, one of the Forum's previous director of economic
governance, has indicated that the Forum's efforts to unite
and strengthen the region were pointless without Fiji's
involvement. He indicated that he felt that among other
things, the regional trade deal, cannot go forward, and
anything to do with integration cannot go forward without
including Fiji.
 
 
The Prime Ministers of Papua New Guinea, Solomon
Islands and Tuvalu attended, as did the Foreign Ministers
of Nauru and East Timor -- though the latter is not a
Forum member -- and ministers or other representatives
from five more forum countries. Discussed was a plan to
build a regional police training centre in Fiji. Its progress,
and its potential sponsors -- including possibly China --
will be watched closely by Canberra. The fact the Forum
is alive and well 40 years after its creation is a mark of
success. However, it is most certainly past time for this
regional body to carry out a stock-take of its achievements.
This is particularly so considering China's influence is
growing in the Pacific. Also the Melanesian Spearhead
Group centred on Fiji, is now giving expression to a
sense of Melanesian solidarity that is in part directed
against Australia. In response, the US has rediscovered
the South Pacific.
 
The American aid program to the region has resumed
after a break of 16 years, possibly as an indication that
the United States seems to be losing faith in Australia
and New Zealand's ability to maintain its interests in
the region.
 
Influence in the islands is also being contested by the
United Arab Emirates who recently announced a
$US50m aid program, in an area where it appeared
to have no obvious interests.
 
All this leads to the conclusion that the Pacific Islands
Forum may not be as central to Pacific islands' concerns
and to regional co-operation as many, including Australia
would like it to be, and perhaps imagines it is. Indeed,
the recently concluded gathering in Auckland may well
have been a complete damp squib were it not for the
accompanying razzmatazz of the rugby world cup,
currently underway in New Zealand. On concluding
their fruitless deliberations, the majority of Pacific
Island leaders merrily dispersed to catch a game or
two.
It is a sad fact that the women of the Pacific region
are among the most discriminated against in the world.
These women suffer shockingly high domestic violence
and maternal death rates, do most of the work for a
fraction of the male wage and have virtually no
representation in public office.
Just under 3 per cent of all elected leaders in the
Pacific are women - the lowest percentage in the world.
The region is now far worse on women's parliamentary
equality than the Gulf states. In fact, five of the nine
countries that have no female parliamentarians are in
the Pacific.
Even Ban Ki-moon, during his recent visit to the Pacific
Islands Forum, became disturbed by the issue of women's
representation. He acknowledged that the situation in
Papua New Guinea in particular, disturbed him.
The problem for women seeking public office in the
Pacific region is quite complex. Apart from considerations
of traditional cultural values, there is straight out
discrimination and the refusal of men to vote for a good
woman candidate with endemic corruption is also being
a factor in some cases. Women with little access to wealth
(or pigs) are in no position to offer the traditional feast that
a successful candidate is expected to provide.
The women of the Pacific, and in particular the educated
women of which there are more and more, are all articulate,
intelligent and hard working. They are seemingly equipped
to run a powerful campaign and become great MPs, but
without intervention this will never happen. Also it has been
suggested that the greater the influence of women in public
life in developing countries, the less corruption exists.
To improve the lot of women in the Pacific will most
probably be a long and difficult journey, A good start
would be to tackle the problem of domestic violence in
the region. This is particularly so as 60 per cent of the
Pacific countries have no domestic violence legislation
and two in three women have reported physical and/or
sexual violence at the hands of their spouse or partner.
Perhaps then the next step would be to get some
women elected to the parliaments of Tuvalu, Nauru,
Palau, Micronesia and the Solomon Islands.
It is most pleasing to see that the Republic of the Marshall
Islands is now home to the world’s largest shark sanctuary. 
The legislation passed by the Marshallese Parliament, ends
commercial fishing of sharks in all 1,990,530 square
kilometres (768,547 square miles) of the central Pacific
country’s waters. To put the sanctuary in context, it
covers roughly the same area as Indonesia, Mexico or
Saudi Arabia, and is about eight times bigger than the UK.
Key provisions of the comprehensive Marshall Islands’
law include a complete prohibition on the commercial fishing
of sharks as well as the sale of any sharks or shark products.
Its zero retention stipulation requires that any shark caught
accidentally by fishing vessels must be set free. In addition,
large monetary fines, of anywhere between US$25,000 to
US$200,000, would be incurred by anyone found to be
fishing sharks or in possession of shark fins.
The Marshall Islands follows the lead taken by Palau two
years ago, whose sanctuary was then the world's biggest.
Other nations including the Bahamas have since followed
suit. However, with the Marshall Islands as with Palau
and some other countries, there are questions over the
capacity of authorities to monitor fully such huge
expanses of ocean.
 
This legislation is particularly important as many species
of open ocean shark are under serious threat of extinction.
Among those listed as endangered are two species of
hammerhead shark, often subject to "finning" - a practice
of removing the fins and throwing away the body.
Indeed, sharks are "profoundly vulnerable" to overfishing, 
principally because many species take several years to
mature and have relatively few young.
In addition, many pelagic sharks are caught in high seas
tuna and swordfish fisheries. Although some are
accidentally caught in nets meant for these other fish, they
are increasingly targeted for their meat, teeth and liver oil,
and because of high demand, particularly in Asia, for
their fins.
 
It is also most pleasing to see that an unprecedented
agreement toward the cooperative stewardship of a vast
swath of Pacific Ocean has been reached, and
conservationists are heralding it as among the most
ambitious, innovative, and collaborative marine initiatives
on Earth.
 
At the recent annual Pacific Islands Leadership Forum,
held in Vanuatu, Heads of State and Governments from
15 nations endorsed a draft framework for the long-term,
sustainable, and cooperative management of 38.5 million
km2 (nearly 24 million square miles) surrounding their
collective islands - an area comparatively larger than the
land size of Canada, the United States and Mexico –
combined.
 
The Framework, called the Pacific Oceanscape, aims
to address all ocean issues from governance to climate
change, as well as design policies and implement
practices that will improve ocean health, increase
resources and expertise, and encourage governments
to factor ocean issues into decisions about economic
and sustainable development. It represents perhaps
the largest marine conservation management initiative
in history, as measured by countries and area, and a
new united Pacific voice on ocean conservation and
management.
 
In a Communiqué announcing the agreement, leaders
from Australia, the Cook Islands, the Federated
States of Micronesia, the Republic of Kiribati, Nauru,
New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, the
Republic of Marshall Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands,
Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu agreed to a Pacific
Oceanscape framework, and "reiterated the critical
importance of ensuring the sustainable development,
management and conservation of our oceans."
 
Introduced to Forum Leaders in 2009 by President
Anote Tong of Kiribati, the Pacific Oceanscape plan
was designed with support from Conservation
International (CI) which has also committed technical
and scientific assistance for implementation. These
historic measures were spurred by Increasing threats,
including climate change, to Pacific Island states.
 
Indeed, climate change threatens the very existence
of many island states. Rising sea levels, overfishing,
warming ocean temperatures pollution, and acidification
are changing our oceans in ways that our ancestors
could not have imagined, There is no doubt that there
is an urgent need for island states to join together and
face these common threats in order to successfully
manage and conserve the ocean's precious resources
for present and future generations of people."
 
Tong added, "The new Pacific Oceanscape will help
us build resilience in ocean ecosystems so that marine
life has the best chance of adapting. Only by doing this
can there be some assurance that the oceans, and
millions of people who depend on them directly for their
livelihood and well-being, will survive the onslaught of
global climate change."
 
Agreement of the Pacific Oceanscape plan this week
came on the heels of similar large-scale success in
the region as UNESCO named Kiribati's Phoenix
Heritage site. The designation makes PIPA's
408,250 km2 the largest marine World Heritage site
on the planet, and a natural climate change research
laboratory that offers scientists many opportunities
to study impacts of climate change, now and well
into the future.
 
With formal adoption of the new Pacific Oceanscape,
leaders of island states now hope their demonstrated
leadership and success in improving ocean health
will spur replication among other governments and
regions that depend on the many benefits of a
healthy ocean for their own national wellbeing. 
 
Conservation International chief scientist for oceans
Dr. Greg Stone said his organization was committed
to the Pacific Oceanscape initiative and environmental
work in the Pacific. In cooperation with Dutch NGO
A-Spark Good Ventures, Conservation International
acknowledged their commitment with a US$100,000
grant to Pacific Oceanscape. Private US organization
MacArthur Foundation also offered support through a
$500,000 grant towards the initiative. Countries
supporting the initiative include Australia, Cook Islands,
Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Nauru, New
Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Republic
of Marshall Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands,
Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

A NASA image showing the deep canyons among glaciers along
the northwest coast of Greenland. Photo: AFP

The area covered by Arctic sea ice has now

reached its lowest point week since the start of
satellite observations in 1972 - a new historic
minimum.
 
This is of particular concern as Arctic ice cover
plays a critical role in regulating Earth's climate
by reflecting sunlight and keeping the polar region
cool.
 
Retreating summer sea ice - 50 per cent smaller
in area than four decades ago - is described by
scientists as both a measure and a driver of global
warming, with negative impacts on a local and
planetary scale. It is also further evidence of a strong
human imprint on climate patterns in recent decades.
The sea ice retreat can no more be explained with
the natural variability from one year to the next,
caused by weather influence. Indeed, climate models
show, rather, that the reduction is related to the
man-made global warming which, due to the albedo
effect, is particularly pronounced in the Arctic.
 
Albedo increases when an area once covered by
reflective snow or ice - which bounces 80 per cent
of the Sun's radiative force back into space - is
replaced by deep blue sea, which absorbs the heat
instead. Temperatures in the Arctic region have risen
more than twice as fast as the global average over
the last half century.
 
In addition, the Arctic ice cover has also become
significantly thinner in recent decades, though it is
not possible to measure the shrinkage in thickness
as precisely as for surface area. Satellite tracking
since 1972 shows that the extent of Arctic sea ice
is dropping at about 11 per cent per decade indicating 
said that summer ice cover could disappear entirely
by 2030, leaving nothing but heat-trapping "blue
ocean."
 
There is no doubt that the stunning loss of Arctic
sea ice is yet another wake-up call that climate
change is here now and is having devastating
effects around the world.
 
This is particularly so for the low-lying nations of
the Pacific region including Kiribati, Tuvalu and
the Marshall Islands.
 
From Kiribati, we are indebted to our good friend
Atanimane Neeti for providing us with a little further
information on the recent visit of the United Nations
Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and his 30-plus
delegation to Kiribati to experience first hand the
impacts of climate change. This high-level UN mission
was expected to affirm issues and concerns of Kiribati
and small island States with climate change, hoping
to accelerate means of support needed within their
capacity.
 
Apart from constructing sea walls, one option being
considered in response to rising sea levels is to move
the country's entire population (100,000 people) onto
artificial islands particularly as some villages in the
country have already been forced to relocate due to
rising sea levels.
 
It is estimated the plan would cost $2 billion and 
was not Kiribati's preferred option but everything
was being considered as the country looked to
secure its future.
 
Certainly some atolls are showing early signs of
sea level rise with water tanks urgently needed
in outer islands suffering salt water contamination
in their wells.
 
An observer has recently indicated that the trees
are dying. And the local people indicating that the
sea is coming under ground and mixing with our
main subsistence food which is taro. The water
around the village is very salty and the locals
can not even wash or cook with it.
 
From Tuvalu, The Red Cross says the atoll of
Nukulaelae (one of the nine islands of Tuvalu) is
very low on fresh drinking water and has requested
government assistance. A joint assessment mission
was sent to Nukulaelae where the team also delivered
11,000 litres of water to its more than 300 people
residents that should last about two weeks. In an
information bulletin, the Red Cross says 90 per
cent of the population of Nukulaelae is being
rationed, with 40 liters [about 10 gallons] of
water per family per day.
 
The joint assessment mission has indicated that
several people, including children, are suffering from
diarrhea and vomiting, and about 50 per cent of the
people do not boil their drinking water, despite
awareness efforts to do so.
 
In addition, a state of emergency has been declared
for the next 14 days because there is a low level of
water on Funafuti island as well. The Red Cross
says the availability of water is critical as it is
impacting the local crops including taro, breadfruits
and coconuts.
 
It says the Public Works Department estimates
that with the rationed amount, the community
will have a minimum of about two weeks with
the remaining water.
The government of New Zealand has responded
to a call for help from the Tuvalu Government by
urgently sending two desalination units to Funafuti.
 
As well, the United States Coast Guard has sent a
vessel with more than 100,000 litres of fresh water
to drought stricken Tokelau after the government of
Tokelau declared a state of emergency.
The lack of rainfall is also adversely impacting 
on Samoa, American Samoa, Tokelau and Tonga.
Sadly, this situation is unlikely to improve in the
short term as a result of a lingering La Nina weather
pattern which looks to be redeveloping after being
the main weather influence last summer.
 
In addition plans are underway to resettle residents
of the flood-prone islands in Papua New Guinea’s
Autonomous Region of Bougainville to the Bougainville
mainland. These include the Carterets and other
outlying islands such as Nissan, Mortlock and
Tasman islands which are all experiencing a severe
drought.
 
In a classic case of David and Goliath, Palau, would
like the International Court of Justice to find that
nations have a responsibility to ensure that their
emissions do not have a negative impact on other
states, faces a long road to achieve its goal. First it
must persuade the General Assembly of the United
Nations -- which has the authority to request a legal
opinion from the Netherlands-based court - to approve
its proposal.
 
Legal experts on climate change say an opinion,
while it would not have a direct effect on any individual
nation, could help set the parameters for future climate
negotiations and influence litigation both between
nations and in domestic courts around the world,
including in the United States. In his statement to the
General Assembly last week, Palau President Johnson
Toribiong said it was essential that "we determine what
the international rule of law means in the context of
climate change."

Palau, a chain of more than 200 mostly low-lying

islands in the Pacific Ocean, roughly 500 miles east
of the Philippines, is among the group of nations most
at threat from rising sea levels attributed to climate
change. The Marshall Islands, another Pacific Ocean
state, has joined Palau in making the request. The
General Assembly has been  asked to "seek, on an
urgent basis ... an advisory opinion from the
International Court of Justice on the responsibilities of
states under international law to ensure that activities
carried out under their jurisdiction or control that emit
greenhouse gases do not damage other states."
 
At this time it is not yet clear if Palau's proposal will
win the backing of the General Assembly as Palau
has not yet formally asked the assembly to take
action. 
 
It is particularly disappointing to see that the recent
South Pacific Forum again failed to address the
problems of oppression and environmental devastation
in West Papua, particularly since that take over by
Indonesia in 1969. New Guinea, geographically as well
as historically, is Australia's closest relative. Separated
from the mainland during the last glacial period, the
waters filled in what now separates them: about 152km
of the Torres Strait. While Australia and New Guinea
both have enviable mineral stores, economic and
political exploitation has left the latter as home to
many of the poorest people on Earth. New Guinea is
also an island of two histories.
 
The eastern half forms the independent state of Papua
New Guinea - a status it has enjoyed since breaking
from Australia in 1975. With its natural resources of oil
and industrial metals, Papua New Guinea has long been
exploited for its minerals at places like Ok Tedi and
Bougainville.
 
Both projects ended in social and environmental disaster.
The environmental impact of Ok Tedi was so great that,
in 1999, the then chief executive of Australian mining
company BHP, concluded that the mine was not
compatible with BHP's environmental values. But it did
serve the company's pursuit of profit. It was not until
the Ok Tedi environmental disaster three years later
that the true impact of BHP's mining practices came
to the attention of the global public. BHP subsequently
sold its interest, established a fund to restore the
sustainable development of the affected people, and
received immunity from further prosecution.
 
The western half of New Guinea has had a lesser-
known but equally tragic history centred around the
Jayawijaya Mountain, home to the Amungme, and
farther downstream, the Kamoro people. As with
much of East Asia, the indigenes were under Dutch
rule when a geological expedition in 1936 located
a significant ore mountain deep in the south-western
highlands. World War II intervened, and the Japanese
claimed Indonesia and some of the western parts of
New Guinea.
 
Following defeat in the war, the Japanese were
marshalled back to their home territory, and Dutch
colonialism resumed. Importantly, when Indonesian
independence was obtained from the Dutch in 1949,
few knew of the mineral ore hidden deep in West
Papua's wilderness.
 
The Dutch began a ten-year Papuanisation programme
in 1957 that would see West Papua handed back to
the indigenes, and would create the independent state
of West Papua around 1972. Despite multiple territorial
claims, the ore mountain lay dormant for over 20 years.
On March 6, 1959, the New York Times reported
the presence of alluvial gold in the Arafura Sea just
off the coast of West Papua. Reminded of their earlier
discovery, Dutch geologists were said to be returning
to the ore mountain, now simply known as Ertsberg. 
The indigenes, meanwhile, as part of their programme
toward independence, established a Papuan National
Council and provisional government as well as their
own military, police force, currency, national anthem,
and flag. At the time, West Papua's independence
was due before the United Nations Decolonisation
Commission, and representatives took part in various
cultural and political activities throughout the region.
By December 1, 1961, the West Papuan "Morning
Star" flag had been raised alongside the Dutch for the
first time. Many assumed that independence was
imminent.
 
Unbeknown to both the indigenes and the Dutch, US
mining company Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold
was negotiating directly with Suharto - at the time an
Indonesian army general - for a small group of its
experts to prospect this ore mountain. The path into
West Papua through Suharto promised to be fruitful
for Freeport, since its board was stacked with the
Rockefeller's Indonesian oil interests who already
were versed in the general's way of doing business.
An exploration agreement was reached, and soon
after a geologist from Freeport was forging his way
through the wilderness toward Ertsberg. West
Papua was about to change hands again.
 
Armed with Chinese and Soviet weapons, as
well as an increasingly public friendship with the
communists, Indonesia declared war on the
Netherlands. To protect Western interests from
the threat of communism, on August 15, 1962,
the United Nations and the United States
orchestrated a meeting between Dutch and
Indonesian officials during which interim control
of West Papua was signed over to Indonesia.
 
Six years of UN interregnum followed, after
which a plebiscite would decide whether to
form a separate nation or integrate into Indonesia.
All 815,000 West Papuans were to vote in an
Act of Free Choice. To ensure a favourable
outcome, the Indonesians worked to suppress
Papuan identity. Raising the West Papuan
flag and singing of the national anthem were
banned, and all political activities were deemed
subversive. Indonesia ruled through force, for
self-interest. Alarmed by ongoing media reports,
on April 5, 1967, in the British House of Lords,
Lord Ogmore called for a UN investigation. By
early 1968, with Suharto having assumed the
presidency of Indonesia, a US consular visit
almost unanimously agreed that "Indonesia
could not win an open election" in West
Papua. 
 
In a desperate attempt to secure West Papua's
right to self-determination, two junior politicians
crossed the border into Australian-administered
Papua and New Guinea on May 29, 1969. They
carried damning evidence of Indonesian repression;
the hopes of a yet-unformed nation rested on the
politicians reaching the UN. As Australia and its
allies were amenable to Indonesian control of
West Papua, the two were imprisoned upon
crossing the border until after the referendum.
Their brave plea was silenced.
 
Between July and August 1969, less than a
quarter of one per cent of the population-some
1,026 West Papuans - signed the country's
freedom over to Indonesia. The election, held
under the aegis of the UN, was far from an act
of free choice. The following day West Papua
was declared a military operation zone, the
local people's movement was restricted, and
expression of their national identity banned
under Indonesian law. 
 
Control of West Papua proved a lucrative
business deal for the Indonesians. Two years
prior to the Act of Free Choice - coincidentally
on the same day the plight of Papua was raised
in the House of Lords - Freeport signed a contract
of work with the Suharto government entitling a
jointly owned company, PT Freeport Indonesia
(Freeport-Indonesia), full rights to the Ertsberg
mine. In return, Indonesia would derive significant
tax revenues and fees as well as a minority 9.36
per cent shareholding. Without the authority to
do so, Indonesia nevertheless cut itself into a
deal that sold large tracts of West Papua to the
US company, intent on sifting it for copper and
gold.
 
Although Ertsberg fulfilled its promise, as
production slowed in the mid-1980s, Freeport-
Indonesia began to explore surrounding mountains
and ridges for other reserves. As is often the case,
the best place to establish a new mine is next to
another. Sure enough, significant copper and gold
reserves were located at Grasberg only a couple
of miles southwest of Ertsberg. 
 
Observing the Grasberg mine via Google Earth,
one sees a scar like no other: Located about
13,000 feet (4,000 meters) above sea level,
open-pit (above ground) mining has bored a
hole through the top of the mountain more than
half a mile (1 km) wide. What they're digging for
is more than $40bn worth of copper and gold.
Every day the operation discharges 230,000
tons of tailings (waste rock) into the Aghawagon
River. This process is expected to continue for
up to six more years, at which point exploration
will go underground until there's no value left.
Freeport estimates that will occur by 2041.
 
The operation is so large that it has shifted the
borders of the adjacent Lorenz National Park.
Listed as a World Heritage site by the United
Nation's Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
 
Organisation (UNESCO) in 1999, the park is 
"the only protected area in the world to incorporate
a continuous, intact transect from snowcap to
tropical marine environment, including extensive
lowland wetlands". For the Amungme and Kamoro
indigenes, corporate imperialism had replaced
European colonialism. The ramifications are both
environmental and social. 
 
The social and economic condition of the
indigenous Amungme and Kamoro poses
fundamental human rights concerns. Although
Freeport-Indonesia directly or indirectly employs
a large number of West Papuans and is regularly
Indonesia's biggest taxpayer, in 2005, the World
Bank found that Papua remained the poorest
province in Indonesia. With a marked rise in
military personnel and foreign staff has come a
number of social issues, including alcohol abuse
and prostitution such that Papua now has the
highest rate of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia.
 
Indonesian control of West Papua has been
characterised by the ongoing and disproportionate
repression of largely peaceful opposition. Few
sustained violent interactions have occurred;
however, in one major conflict in 1977, more than
1,000 civilian men, women, and children were
killed by the Indonesian military in "Operation
Annihilation" after a slurry pipe was severed
and partially closed the Ertsberg mine.
 
More recently, in 1995, the Australian Council
for Overseas Aid reported that the Indonesian
army and security forces killed 37 people involved
in protests over the mine in the preceding seven-
month period. While the level of violence is difficult
to establish, academics at the Centre for Peace
and Conflict Studies at the University of Sydney
maintain that up to 100,000 West Papuans may
have been killed since Indonesian occupation.
They call what's happening to West Papua
"slow-motion genocide".
 
There are also two primary environmental concerns
over Grasberg. The first is that the mine discharges
230,000 tons of waste rock a day into surrounding
waterways; given the escalating rate of processing,
this rate is arguably above that allowed by national
law. Secondly, acid rock drainage - the outflow of
acidic water - has resulted from the disposal of a
further 360,000 to 510,000 tons a day of overburden
and waste rock in two adjacent valleys covering 4
miles (6.5 km), up to 975 feet (300 metres) deep.
The mine operators dispute both claims.
 
Riverine methods of waste disposal are banned in
every developed country on Earth. The World Bank no
longer funds projects that operate this way, due to the
irreversible ecological devastation, and the International
Finance Corporation requires that rock be treated prior
to disposal, which is not a practice carried out at
Grasberg. Since the mid-1990s, a number of
independent environmental assessments have found
unacceptably high levels of toxicity and sediment as
far as 140 miles away. Indeed, Grasberg's reserves
are so vast that extracting them is expected to
create 6 billion tons of industrial waste.
 
President Suharto, who is now recognised as one
of the most corrupt and tyrannical leaders in history,
renewed Freeport-Indonesia's exclusive mining
rights in 1991 for a further 30 years with an option
of two 10-year extensions. The license included an
option to prospect another 6.5 million acres (2.6
million hectares), as far as the Papua New Guinea
border. 
(part of this material has been extracted from the
book, Evolutions in Sustainable Investing: Strategies,
Funds and Thought Leadership, by NAJ Taylor to be
published by Wiley in December 2011.)
With rising sea levels making the low-lying islands
of the Pacific more and more uninhabitable, it is the
Pacific islanders that reflect the human face of climate
change and global warming. This is particularly so as
they often live on a mere spit of land in the middle of
a vast ocean which is lapping higher and higher on
their shores. However, many of our island people,
who predominantly subsist on fishing and often the
sale of fishing rights, are only now coming to the
realization that they may become the first culture on
this planet to be displaced by a global disaster that
is not of their making.
 
The people of the Pacific Islands have made these
low-lying islands their home for thousands of years
and in the process have developed a deep and
beautiful cultural heritage as well as a deep
understanding of the ways of the sea. There is little
doubt, however, that they will eventually be forced
to move to higher ground as the sea claims their
land as well as the bodies of their ancestors. 
 
Finally, it is most interesting to see that genome
research has now found a relationship between
our earlier relatives Neanderthal man and Homo
sapiens. In fact, it was found that many of us are
part - Neanderthal. For more information on the
origins of our Melanesian people, you are invited
to visit the following URL: 
*     *     *     *     *     *     *
 
PACIFIC ISLANDS RADIO
www.pacificislandsradio.com
 
SAMOA MUSIC
 
The Polynesians are natural musicians and the
Samoans are no exception. They love to hear and
sing good music. Robert Louis Stevenson once said
that the Samoans composed a song for every trivial
occasion. . . Song is almost endless. The boatman
sings at the oar, the family and evening worship and
the workman at his toil. No occasion is too small for
the poets and the musicians; a death, a visit, the day's
news and pleasantries will be set to rhyme and
harmony.
*     *     *     *     *

AUSTRALIA - ABORIGINAL MUSIC

 
The music of the Australian Aborigines and Torres
Strait Islanders is very much part of the social fabric of
their life, their history and their culture. It has a haunting
and mysterious quality that draws the listener into the
history, culture and the ancient dreamtime of the
Aboriginal people. 
 
MELANESIA MUSIC
 
The people of Oceania, in common with all of mankind,
have a common origin in Africa. The migrations to the
Pacific region, however, came about through different
routes and over a long period of many tens of thousands
of years. The first to arrive were the Melanesians who
are by far the oldest ethnic group in the Pacific region,
and who are the proud owners of a very rich and diverse
 
KIRIBATI TRADITIONAL MUSIC
 
Traditional Kiribati musical composition involves both
ritualism and magic. It is undertaken using procedures
that had been handed down from generation to
generation.
 
POLYNESIAN MUSIC
 
Internationally, Polynesian music is mostly associated
with twinkling guitars and grass skirts, Hawaiian hula
and other tourist-friendly forms of music. While these
elements are justifiably a part of Polynesian history and
culture, there is actually a wide variety of music made
in the far-flung reaches of Polynesia.
 
MICRONESIA MUSIC
 
The traditional music of Micronesia was composed utilizing
mythology, magic, rituals and closely guarded procedures
handed down from one generation to the next. In common
with the people of Polynesia and Melanesia, the people of
Micronesia have a deep love of music from contemporary
to traditional. Music can be heard in the early morning
while the toddy cutters are at work, in the babai or taro
pits, and until late at night to the accompaniment of the
traditional dance.
 
PACIFIC ISLANDS RADIO

Pacific Islands Radio's range of broadcasting
formats and playlists has now been integrated
into a single high definition FM stereo format in
order to allow our listeners greater enjoy of 
our beautiful island music.
 
As usual, Pacific Islands Radio is always keen
to promote our talented island musicians
worldwide in order to satisfy the continuing
demand for our beautiful and distinctive Pacific
Island music! In this respect, should you know
of any island artists whose talents you would
like to see promoted, please contact me on:

jane@pacificislandsradio.com

Our four Pacific Islands Radio Stations play the
enchanting music of the Pacific Islands 24 hours
daily.

MELANESIAN MUSIC (WEST PAPUA)

Like most indigenous cultures of the South
Pacific, music and dance are integral to the West
Papuan identity. Singing takes place at funerals,
ceremonies, in times of suffering and in times of
celebration.

Musical groups exist, both at home and abroad -
even in the refugee camps, where suffering and
worry are the people's daily food. Here they sing,
form choirs, make simple instruments and
continue their musical traditions as they have
done for centuries.

It takes courage, however, to sing of freedom in
West Papua - the territory that's been administered
by Indonesia since the 1969 Act of Free Choice.
Any cultural expression that doesn't fit neatly
within Indonesian national ideology is definitely
frowned upon by the Indonesian authorities.

Melanesian identity is certainly celebrated, by
the West Papuan group, Black Paradise. Their album
"Spirit of Mambesak" includes songs from different
areas of West Papua-Biak, Manokwari, Merauke,
Sorong, and Arso-and the diverse cultures of the
islands.

 

Black Paradise

A driving force behind the band is Ferry Marisan,
who jointly produced "Spirit of Mambesak" with
Australian musician David Bridie. Marisan graduated
in anthropology from the University of Cendrawasih
in Jayapura. Together, with most members of Black
Paradise, he works with the Institute for the Study
and Advocacy of Human Rights (ELSHAM), the
leading human rights organization in West Papua.

This combination of academia, performance and
human rights activism follows a path travelled by
Arnold Clemens Ap-the famed cultural leader who
formed the band Mambesak with Eddie Mofu and
Sam Kapissa in the late 1970s. These early leaders
of the Papuan cultural renaissance are now dead.
Ap was imprisoned by the Indonesian authorities
for alleged sympathies with the outlawed Organisasi
Papua Merdeka (OPM), and was killed in 1984,
supposedly while trying to escape from prison.
Kapissa died of "food poisoning" in 2001, but
many West Papuans believe he was murdered by
the Indonesian military.

A central feature of Arnold Ap's work was to
collect and perform songs in local languages-music
that still unites the disparate peoples of a nation
with more than two million people. Ap collected songs
that fuelled a sense of West Papuan identity, from
coastal and mountain communities and from east
and west, songs that celebrate a connection with
the land.

Twenty years after his death, the influence of Arnold
Ap resonates through the music of Black Paradise.
Their "Spirit of Mambesak" CD includes songs like
"Tata Mena", first collected by Ap in the 1970s.
Ferry Marisan's song "Mambruk ma Manyouri", sung in
the Biak language, uses the Mambruk bird and the
Nuri bird to symbolise Ap and Sam Kapissa, who also
served as a mentor for Black Paradise.

Mambesak performed songs from around the country,
and Black Paradise follows the same tradition. There
are love songs like "Aye Nanaweye", the string band
tune that opens the album, and music that evokes love
of the land, the bush, and the mist on the hills.
"Metamani", sung in the nawatan language, pictures
the Metamani River.

This sense of place takes on a sharp political edge,
at a time when politicians in Jakarta, Port Moresby
and Canberra stress that West Papua is part of Indonesia.
As David Bridie notes: "Something as innocuous as a
song about the beauty of the mountains and the rainforest
is quite political, because of the freedom of being able to
hunt and farm on your own land. If you're denied that,
the songs take on a stronger meaning."

Bridie has been a strong promoter of Melanesian music
in Australia. His interest was sparked by visits to
Papua New Guinea in the 1980s with childhood friend Mark
Worth (the Australian filmmaker who tragically passed
away in Jayapura). Bridie's former band, Not Drowning,
Waving, recorded their 1990 album "Tabaran" in Papua
New Guinea, and he formed a continuing partnership
with Papua New Guinea musician, George Telek.

Bridie's visits to Papua New Guinea inspired greater
awareness of the situation facing West Papuans across
the border: "I was quite political, but it really struck
me not knowing about this situation - knowing more about
Nicaragua and El Salvador than I did about the history
of West Papua."


For further information on "Spirit of Mambesak"
(Blunt Records), you are invited to visit:
www.mana.com.au/blackparadise
 
ARNOLD AP

Arnold Ap was a singer, guitarist and tifa drummer.
He had intimate ties with customary leaders and other
artists. He was appointed Curator of the Museum
at the CenderwaseH (Bird of Paradise) university in
Jayapura. He believed his role was to uncover,
cultivate and develop Papuan songs, language, stories
and arts which he believed were under threat. He saw
the university as a "Khasana" - meaning a treasury or
storage area for valuable objects. Ap was concerned
to represent West Papuan culture as being with
Melanesia rather than the rest of the Indonesian
archipelago. He formed the music group Mambesak
in 1978 which travelled the country recording the
songs and dances of different regions, encouraging
their continued performance

Mambesak was formed to uncover, revitalise and
introduce West Papuan traditional artistic culture.
They played songs of Papuan freedom. Their music
was aired on local radio stations and on village
tape recorders. Their cassettes were extremely popular
amongst all Papuans. His producing and recording
of songs in local languages rather than Bahasa was
considered a political statement, akin to flying the
flag. He was arrested in November 1983. He was
seen as a threat by the military rulers such was his
status. He was accused of writing songs that were
intended to inspire the OPM separatist struggle.

On April 26th,1984, Arnold Ap was killed by
soldiers. Allegedly as he escaped from jail
where he had been detained since his arrest in
November 1983. By his people, he was regarded
as a "Konor", a philosopher, a saint with many
powers. These people always think good thought,
have a true understanding of life and can even
foresee the future. Ap sang the song "Sup Moyiwa"
(my ancestral land) just prior to his assassination
which included the following lyrics.

"I am sailing away,
I am sailing away to make my way
To look for knowledge as a foothold in life for
the time to come
Clouds at the peak of the Blue Mountain,
Sad hearted but joyful,
In the land of my ancestors,
On a certain day tomorrow,
I imagine the suffering of my people,
my nation, my mother, my father as well as my
people that earthly; and leave behind with great
yearning."


BLACK PARADISE
SPIRIT OF MAMBESAK

This is an album of extraordinary beauty
and integrity. I found the music to be rich
and appealing, with vocals and harmonies
that are melodious, pleasing and compelling.

This album successfully retains the values,
colour and identity of each of the different
indigenous groups in West Papua from
which the music is derived..

Produced as part of a movement aiming
to preserve and revitalise indigenous
song and dance, this album successfully
introduces the music and song of West
Papua to the international community.

I think that, on its musical strengths
alone, this album deserves to be heard
and appreciated by a worldwide audience
 
FEATURE ARTIST
ISRAEL KAMAKAWIWO'OLE

The gentle giant Israel Kamakawiwo'ole is regarded
by many as the most honoured Hawaiian singer of
all times. This gentle giant who sadly passed away
in 1997 at the young age of 38 left behind a
remarkable legacy of five solo albums and ten disks
with his group, the Makaha Sounds. In a 20 year carerr,
Israel composed and interpreted major works of
contemporary Hawaiian music.

With an amazing vocal range, and the voice of an
angel, he was an artist whose extraordinary talent
left no listener untouched.

Following his death in 1997 at the young
age of 38, the body of Israel
Kamakawiwo'ole lay in state in the state
capitol, only the second person to receive
such an honour. Kamakawiwo'ole's appeal
lies in his love for prestatehood,
precondominium Hawaii. Iz sings with
great passion about a Hawai'i of earlier
times, before being overrun by mainland
developers and Japanese tourists and,
indeed, the regret of native Hawaiians
over losing their sovereignty... The voice
is supple, ethereal, with only a ukulele
accompaniment and the expressiveness
of his gently passionate voice can float
through higher registers with ease, and
can melt the hardest heart.
 

One of Hawaii's most beloved singers,
Israel Kamakawiwo'ole made an
impression on Hawaiian culture that will
never be forgotten.

His untimely death

in 1997 was a national day of mourning,
and rightly so. His work, not just in
Hawaiian music, but also in keeping the
Hawaiian heritage and culture alive,
gives inspiration to all, and this
collection of songs gives a great window
into a truly legendary performer. Israel
"IZ" Kamawiwo'ole, the man, may be gone,
but his music has made him immortal.
Even if you have never visited Hawaii
or listened to Hawaiian music before,
buy a copy this CD and it will
immediately become one of the premier
discs in your collection.
Soak in the enchanting sounds of the sun-drenched Oceania/Pacific Islands coming to you in 64kbps FM Stereo!

*     *     *     *     *
NOTICE BOARD

It is certainly my great pleasure to be able
to again introduce to you all our new and
hopefully beneficial fourth Domain:

www.ourpacificocean.com

The name of our fourth Domain - Our Pacific
Ocean - has been selected to reflect our close
affinity with and our love of our vast and most
beautiful Ocean. This Domain effectively sits
across our other three Domains and, in doing
so, provides updated information as well as
ease of navigation via the alphabetical index
provided for you and all our visitors on the
Menu.
 
The above Domain has been successfully in
operation since late 2008. Also, I have
incorporated a considerable amount of new
material including numerous postcards from
the Philippines and the Pacific/Oceania. This
upgrade also provides significant authentic
and most colourful images of Oceania.

OCEANIA RESOURCES

This Web site draws together a wide range
of Oceania material in order to allow visitors
to access this information from a common source.
This information includes an extensive range of
Oceania mythology, ethnology, tribal art, tattoos,
postcards and picture galleries, as well as links
to the home pages of the countries of Oceania,
Pacific Islands Radio Stations Web sites and to
other Oceania Web sites.
http://www.janeresture.com/oceania_resources/index.htm

OCEANIA GENEALOGY

This Web site contains a short list of reference
material that may be useful for people wishing
to trace their genealogy, particularly if they are
descendants of the early traders of Oceania.
http://www.janesoceania.com/oceania_genealogy/index.htm
 
JANE RESTURE'S OCEANIA PAGE

Jane Resture's Oceania Page was developed
to present and highlight an extended range of
material in conjunction with Jane's Oceania
Home Page. In doing this, it will allow the visitor
to readily access information about the Pacific
Islands.
http://www.janesoceania.com/index.html
 
JANE'S OCEANIA TRAVEL PAGE

Jane's Oceania Travel Page exists to provide
the traveller with information to assist in the
preparation of a travel agenda. The information
on these pages is complemented by links to the
various travel authorities throughout Melanesia,
Micronesia and Polynesia as well as other Pacific
Islands. These authorities will be able to make
available more detailed information as well as
arranging accommodation and attending to the
other needs of the traveller.

Throughout Oceania, there is a vast and
comprehensive variety of attractions and
interesting places to visit and see. From the
ancient mountains of Papua New Guinea to
the coral atolls of Tuvalu and Kiribati to the
modern cities of Hawaii, please settle back
and enjoy an armchair traveller's visit to the
exotic, enchanting, mysterious and beautiful
Pacific Islands.
http://www.janesoceania.com/tourism/index.htm

OCEANIA TRAVEL - AN OCEAN OF FUN

The Pacific Ocean represents one big holiday
for people worldwide, including the Gold Coast
and the rest of Australia. At this time of year,
there are bargains galore, some of which are
outlined below.
http://www.janesoceania.com/oceania_travel/index.htm


OCEANIA TRAVEL - AUSTRALIA 

THE PACIFIC COAST
 
Although Australia was settled by Europeans
just over 200 years ago, it has evolved into an
exciting cosmopolitan nation composed of people
from every corner of the globe. The largest of all
the Pacific islands, it sits on the edge of the South
Pacific rim, its eastern shores fringed by long
stretches of white sandy beaches, washed by
pounding surf. Originally called the great south
land, this vast southern continent has everything
a holiday maker could wish for.
*   *   *   *   *

PACIFIC ISLANDS RADIO STATIONS
 
PACIFIC ISLANDS RADIO
MUSIC SUPPLIERS

The following are some of the main specialist
suppliers of our music from the Pacific
Islands, who are highly recommended by
Pacific Islands Radio.

ISLANDMELODY.COM

Pacific Islands Radio recommends
Islandmelody.com for a selection of
traditional and contemporary music with
an emphasis on Micronesian music.
http://www.islandmelody.com

BWANARAOI MUSIC SHOP -
TARAWA, REPUBLIC OF KIRIBATI

For the beautiful music of Kiribati along with
the enchanting music of other Pacific Islands,
you are invited to contact the following exclusive
distributor:
E-mail:
angirota@tskl.net.ki

Our four Pacific Islands Radio Stations play the
enchanting music of the Pacific Islands 24 hours
daily.
www.pacificislandsradio.com
http://www.janeresture.com/radio/index.htm
 
Pacific Music Radio 68 kbps (mp3PRO)
http://www.live365.com/stations/drjaneresture
Pacific Islands Radio
http://www.live365.com/stations/janeresture
Radio Melanesia
http://www.live365.com/stations/janeres
Micronesia Music Radio
http://www.live365.com/stations/jane_resture
 
ABOUT BOOKS

 
LAST FLIGHT
By Amelia Earhart
 
By Crown Trade Paperbacks
New York
 
The remarkable account of Amelia Earhart's last
fateful flight is recorded in this collection of essays,
letters, poems, and flight records all written by the
legendary aviatrix herself.
 
Earhart writes with humor and intelligence of how
she grew to love aviation and what it came to mean
in her life. She describes her travels to exotic and
remote locations, the sheer strength and fortitude
needed to repair airplanes, and the long, tedious
hours spent cramped in a small cockpit - as well
as the delight she took in overcoming obstacles.
 

Last Flight is an absorbing and exciting adventure

story lived by a woman who demanded the
opportunity to meet the same challenges as her
male peers and then who faced those challenges
with unique grace and courage.
 
Since her disappearance over the Pacific in 1937,
countless theories of espionage, intrigue, and
government interference have risen to explain the
mystery. Earhart's legend has only grown among
this whirlwind of speculation and controversy.
 
And now, with the reissuing of this volume, a
whole new generation of readers will be
introduced to the woman herself in her own
words.
COMING EVENTS 
COOK ISLANDS
1st December, 2011: Miss Tiare Pagent & Young
Warrior Contest
 
The crowning of the new Miss Tiare is the finale of
the annual tiare festival, which this year begins in
October.    And as if to prove there is equality in the
islands, a new feature of the event was introduced
last year for the young men.  They'll compete in the
Young Warrior (Tama Aito) event. The young women
also have to choose a flower that best represents them,
while the young men pick a plant or tree. And all have
to recite a speech and showcase their own personal
talent.
TAHITI 
15th December, 2011 "in Gauguins's Footsteps"
Exhibition
 
(Papeete, Tahiti) - The last exhibition of the year
takes place at the Fare Manihini on the Papeete
waterfront. It will be dedicated to Tahiti's favorite
enigmatic colonial era painter, Paul Gauguin, and the
mysteries of his life and fascination with the islands
and lifestyle of Polynesia.

SPECIAL FEATURE - PROMINENT PEOPLE

 
CAPTAIN WILLIAM BLIGH
 
A famous figure in Australian history, William Bligh
is less well-known for his love of natural history
and his sketches of the wildlife he saw in his travels.

http://www.janesoceania.com/captbligh1/index.htm

 
CAPTAIN BLIGH OF THE 'BOUNTY'
 
Best known for his role in the 'Mutiny on the Bounty',
Captain William Bligh was a brilliant seaman and
navigator who served under Captain James Cook
during his third and final voyage. He later went on
to become Governor of New South Wales, Australia.
 
FEATURE WEB SITES

BOUGAINVILLE HISTORY
The First 28,000 Years
 
The first humans to set foot on Bougainville-Buka, some
28,000 years ago, came from the northwest - either
directly, from southeastern New Ireland or, more probably,
by stages from there via the Feni and Nissan Islands. The
present open-sea distances between New Ireland and
Buka, via Feni and Nissan, are no wider than 72 kilometres...
 
BOUGAINVILLE HISTORY
Mandated Territory
 
As World War I drew to a close, Australia was faced
with the question of what to do with German New Guinea,
or rather, how to ensure the continuance of Australia's
control there. It was officially recognized that the act of
military occupation did not legally constitute the
establishment of sovereignty, but it was widely assumed,
and publicly demanded, that the colony would remain in
Australian hands for both military and economic reasons.
 
In Australia a few voices were raised against outright
annexation, holding that it would be a betrayal of the
Allied commitment to 'no territorial gains'. A few others
spoke up for the principle of 'self determination',
implying that the colony's native populace should be
consulted in the matter - an unrealistic proposal, to say
the least! But when the Prime Minister, William Hughes,
left for the peace conference in Paris, even most of the
Opposition in the Australian parliament supported his
wish to convert the de facto military control into
outright sovereignty.
 
BOUGAINVILLE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA
 
Located in the Melanesian archipelago between Papua
New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, Bougainville is
an old civilization, in excess of 25,000 years, and is
rich in both natural resources and culture. Technically,
Bougainville belongs to the Solomon Islands group but
was politically divided from the Solomon Islands as a
result of a British, German and United States trade-off
known as the Anglo-German treaty on Samoa in 1889.
 
SOLOMON ISLANDS - COASTWATCHERS
 
The following story of the Coastwatchers is dedicated
to the men operating behind enemy lines in an environment
of appalling danger. Their task was to observe Japanese
movements through the Solomon Islands so that they
might be counted by the Allies. These men, Australians,
New Zealanders and Solomon Islanders, some of whom
are pictured below, operated in fearsome jungle condition
and performed seemingly impossible feats in order to land
or escape by submarines and aircraft. This was all done
to gain the essential knowledge which they radioed back
to Headquarters - and which played a vital part in the
defeat of the Japanese.
 
TUVALU LAND AFFAIRS
 
This Web page is mainly concerned with our heritage
in land matters. The land has been valued as our asset
from earliest ancestral times. The ancestors formulated
the land customs which are being used up to the
present time. The rapid change of lifestyle in Tuvalu is
a factor which is gradually changing the land customs.
People are adopting the European ways of life which
depend on money and land but have little effect on the
life of the people. Boundary disputes are now a major
problem where people try to move their boundaries into
their neighbours' territories to make their lands wider or
longer. This is intensified by increased population where
people need more land to feed more mouths which is
also a worldwide problem. The flow out of family-inherited
lands to other people is becoming a common factor where
nobody pays attention to former land customs, and land is
just given out as gifts.
http://www.janeresture.com/tuvland/index.htm
*     *     *     *     *
TUVALU AND THE HURRICANES
HURRICANE BEBE 1972
In the afternoon of Saturday 21st October, people were
seen paddling their canoes in the airfield which was then
flooded with sea water to about knee deep. The sea
water came out from holes in the ground, apparently
people were beginning to sense something of the ordinary
for they had never seen flooding to have risen to waist
deep, neither have they seen it reached knee deep.
 
From evening to midnight on that particular Saturday,
the wind had increased to hurricane force and was
playing havoc on the island, tearing down houses,
uprooting trees and blowing away everything to
everywhere. Even though the moon was just one day
down from full moon, it did not portray any indication
of its position at all.
*     *     *     *     *
TUVALU HISTORY
The Davis Diaries
 
In 1892, Captain Davis of the Royal Australian Navy
visited the Islands of Tuvalu and made a record of his
observations in the Diaries of Captain Davis of the
H.M.S. Royalist. The Ellice Islands were declared a
Protectorate by Captain Gibson R.N. of H.M.S.
Curacao between 9th and 16th October of the same
year. The visit of Captain Davis was one of the last
acts of what has been termed 'British Imperialism'.
 
Davis did more than bring 'The Flag'. He settled
disputes amongst traders of various nationalities then
operating in the Ellice Group and between traders
and islanders. He met and talked with all manner of
people. What he saw and heard he recorded, and
his observations are detailed and shrewd. This
website should provide an invaluable source of
material for anyone engaged in a study of Tuvaluan
history.
 
THE LOYALTY ISLANDS
 
NEW CALEDONIA
 
The archipelago of the Loyalty Islands lies 100
kilometres east of mainland New Caledonia, separated
by a 2,500 metre deep strait. With a total area of 2,500
square kilometres, the Loyalty Islands consist of four
inhabited raised coral atolls - Lifou, Mare, Ouvea and
Tiga.
*     *     *     *     *
ABOUT PAPUA NEW GUINEA HISTORY
The history of Papua New Guinea prior to the arrival
of European colonists in the 19th century is only starting
to be pieced together. The task is daunting. The highly
fragmented indigenous cultures left no written records
and the marks they made on the landscape have almost
been completely erased, their houses, fields and artefacts
have been swallowed by the tropical environment. The
incredible capacity the vegetation has for swallowing
history is clear when you look for the scars of World
War II. Although you still don't have to search far,
whole bases have been completely engulfed by jungle.
If you don't know precisely where to look, you can
walk straight past bunkers, railways and bomb craters
that are less than 50 years old. Little wonder there are
few relics of the hunger/gatherers who are now
believed to have settled on the island at least 50,000
years ago.
http://www.janesoceania.com/png_about/index.htm

NORFOLK ISLAND POSTCARDS

Norfolk Island has a unique atmosphere and character
of its own. There are old convict buildings and ruins,
with their austere history which share the island with
the courteous and gentle descendants of the Pitcairners
along with the mainlanders who have come to share
this peaceful haven in the South Pacific.
 
NORFOLK ISLAND - A SHORT HISTORY
 
NORFOLK ISLAND
Prehistory and First Penal Settlement (1774-1814)
http://www.janesoceania.com/norfolkisland_history/index.htm
AUSTRALIA
Australian Native Flowers
 
GOLD COAST, AUSTRALIA
HAWAII
Maui, The Valley Island
 
The beautiful isle of Maui came about as the result of
 the fiery explosion of two volcanoes. To one side of
Maui is 5,788 foot Pu'u Kukui and on the other
Haleakala, a 10,023 foot dormant volcano with a
Manhattan size crater that houses a vast desert of
unusual flora including the rare Silversword. Add to
this 125 miles of dazzling coastline, both dramatic
and diverse for surfing, snorkelling and canoeing,
plus waterfalls plunging a thousand feet, rainforest
bursting with colour and exotic vegetation and a
start lunar landscape, so barren that the astronauts
practised their moon landing here and you have the
extraordinary island of Maui.
http://www.janeresture.com/hawaii_maui/index.htm
 
KIRIBATI
The Early Gilbertese (Kiribati) Wars
British influence began to be noticed in the latter
part of the nineteenth century. British warships
began frequenting the islands from the mid 1800's
until the hoisting of the flag on Abemama by
Captain Davis in 1892. The British government
came to the islands with totally different motives
from the traders or missionaries. The British
came to rule. They stopped civil disturbances,
set up a system of government, which included
traditional leaders at least for a time, established
law and order, and protected the interests of
foreigners residing in the islands. Later,
 educational and medical facilities were also
developed.
 
ASPECTS OF KIRIBATI
 
A typical Gilbertese (Kiribati) island of the Gilbert
Group shown below normally consists of a strip of
land, an encircling belt of reef and a lagoon. The
strip of land, covered with coconut palms is almost
on the same level as the high tide. The highest points
are scarcely more than a man's height and comprise
sand dunes formed by a wave stronger than the others -
or are shovelled-up heaps of earth left by people who
have been digging a pit in which to plant babai. The
islands of Makin, Kuria, Nikunau, Tamana and
Arorae have no lagoon.  
 
SAMOA - THE LOTUS LAND OF THE PACIFIC   
 
The fierce noonday sun blazed upon the roofs of the
straggling line of houses that fringes the beach and
forms the township of Apia. In the harbour a couple
of small trading schooners lay idly at anchor. Further
out to sea the tiny canoe of a solitary fisherman,
restlessly rising and falling just inside the line of
breakers that marks the edge of the outer reef,
was the only sign of life and motion visible through
the hot, palpitating air. I sat on the veranda of the
hotel, gazing idly seaward, thinking of the ten days
yet to be endured ere the mail steamer should call
and take me back to civilisation and cooler
weather, and wondering how I should kill the time.
 
SAMOA - THE ISLES OF THE NAVIGATORS
 
The following unique historical perspective of Samoa
was recorded by Hervey W. Whitaker who visited
Samoa in 1886 and again in 1887. His observations
provide a unique perspective of Samoan life at this
time. They were published in "The Century Illustrated
Monthly Magazine Of May 1889".
 
SAMOA HOME PAGE
 
There is a special magic about Samoa that, for centuries
has drawn writers, travellers, romantics, indeed all
kinds of people to her shores. These include the famous
writer Robert Louis Stevenson, the trader, writer and
politician, George Westbrook and the missionaries,
including John Williams of the London Missionary
Society, who established their churches on Samoa
reaching out from there to the rest of Oceania.
 
OCEANIA ETHNOLOGY
 
Micronesia as an area is for the most part a featureless
expanse of ocean peppered with small coral islands
and islets. It extends from the Gilbert Islands (Kiribati)
which straddles the equator, north and west to the
Marshall, Caroline and Federated States of Micronesia.
 
This equatorial area is a region of steady wind, from
which the low islands, particularly in the eastern area,
failed to attract much rain, though the high islands,
Kosrae, Yap, Pohnpei and Guam, have abundant and
luxuriant verdure.
 
The early Polynesian voyagers travelled extensively
throughout the Polynesian triangle and the northern
equatorial islands. This Web site examines the remains
of these early Polynesians and draws conclusions as to
the probable nature of their origin.
 
AUSTRALIA - FIRST SETTLERS
 
Aborigines were telling stories about the land and
animals around them long before the ancient Egyptians
built the pyramids. Cave paintings of animals and
spirits in Australia are at lest as old as the earliest
example in Europe. The paintings and stories tell
how the great spirits made the land, animals, and
plants, and how they taught the people to find food,
perform ceremonies, dance, sing, paint, and keep
the laws.
 
PAPUA NEW GUINEA TRIBAL ART
 
The Tribal Art of Papua New Guinea is ancient,
rare, vibrant and among the most beautiful in
Oceania. 
 
PAPUA NEW GUINEA - THE GIMI PEOPLE
 
The Gimi people of Papua New Guinea live in
splendoured isolation still adhering to the stone age
culture of their ancestors. This culture gives great
emphasis to elaborate ceremonies reflecting
concerns for fertility - both of the land and the
people.
 
POLYNESIAN ORIGINS
 
Modern DNA evidence strongly supports the
view that the Polynesian people have their origins
in a small group of Austronesian speaking people
in Taiwan. This web site takes a preliminary
look at some of the many tribal traditional groups
and provinces in the Philippines Islands with regard
to their traditions, language, music and culture with
particular emphasis on the apparent similarities 
with those of the Polynesian people.
 
OCEANIA
 
Japan And The Great Pacific Conflict
 
Despite the knowledge in the upper echelons of
the Combined Fleet and at naval headquarters that
Japan had suffered a disastrous defeat at Midway,
no indication of the truth was permitted outside the
fleet. As the Japanese steamed home, radio Tokyo
was blaring out its braggartry about the "great victory"
 won by the Imperial forces in this battle. They had
sunk two American carriers, one destroyer, and
damaged a cruiser. (The fact was they had sunk one
aircraft carrier and one destroyer.) They had shot
down 179 American planes. (Actually the Americans
had lost 147 planes, but not nearly that many pilots.
Many pilots were rescued and the planes included
those lost with the carrier Yorktown when she sank.)
 
AUSTRALIA - ABORIGINAL SCULPTURE
 
Before the arrival of European settlers in Australia, all
Aboriginal three-dimensional sculptures were ephemeral,
designed through inspiration from the Dreaming or tjukurpa
and translated into reality for a brief moment of ceremony.
Unlike many African nations, for example, Australia had no
tradition of venerating ancestors through carved wooden
or moulded images. Ritual objects in Australia were either
designed to influence the spiritual powers by allowing their
life force to enter the temporal world during dance and ritual,
or to encourage the spirits of the dead to leave the temporal
world during dance and ritual, or to encourage the spirits of
the dead to leave the temporal world and pass into the
landscape whence they came.
 
AUSTRALIA - BUSH TALES - PART 1
 
Bush Characters and Bush Customs
 
Gone are the swagmen of yesterday and with
them has gone most of the colour associated with
carrying the swag.
 
TAHITI IMAGES
 
The following are a collection of interesting and
beautiful images from Tahiti.
 
AUSTRALIA - GREAT AUSTRALIAN MEN
 
SIR CHARLES EDWARD KINGSFORD SMITH
(1897-1935)
 
Charles Kingsford Smith was born in Hamilton (a suburb
of Brisbane), Queensland, in 1897. He enjoyed working
with his hands and when he turned thirteen, he started at
the Sydney Technical College studying mechanics and
electrical engineering. He was an active young man and
owned a motorbike, preferring to ride it instead of studying
and school work. From 1903 to 1907, he and his family
lived in Vancouver, Canada.
*     *     *     *     *
AUSTRALIA - GREAT AUSTRALIAN WOMEN
STELLA MILES FRANKLIN (1879-1954) AND
ROSE SCOTT (1847-1925)
 
Visionaries Who Demanded change To The Role Of Women
 
As part of Melbourne's Federation celebrations in May
2001, Stella Miles Franklin was honoured as one of
Australia's high achievers. Most Australians know Franklin
as the benefactor of the Miles Franklin Award, an annual
award for literature. Australian, British, American and
Irish readers know Franklin's Australian classic My
Brilliant Career. Several books written about Miles
Franklin concentrate on her writing rather than her life,
about which she was extremely secretive. Rose Scott
and Miles Franklin stood for and achieved has had a
huge influence on women today. they dared to question
women's roles in the era before domestic appliances
freed women from grinding domestic toil. Miles grew
up seeing her mother living a treadmill existence of
domestic and farm drudgery interspersed with repeated
cycles of pregnancy, birth, breast-feeding and weaning.
 
Miles' own life spanned a period of huge change: she
saw horses and buggies replaced by motor cars and
aeroplanes, contraceptives, previously illegal, become
freely available in family planning clinics; and later she
watched (albeit with misgivings) the arrival of the
contraceptive pill in Australia. Before Miles' death,
syphilis, the 'Red Peril' so detested by her and rose
Scott, was finally vanquished by penicillin.
 
Co-Founder And Manager Of A Great Australian Winery 
 
It seems unjust that Mary Penfold, co-founder of a
great Australian winery, does not rate an entry under
her own name in the Dictionary of Australian Biography.
 
Instead of having her own entry, she is included as an
afterthought to her husband's. It reminds many of us of
the time when women had no role in business, could not
 
get loans or mortgages and everything they owned
belonged to their husbands, including their children.
 
POLYNESIA - POLYNESIA CHIEFS
 
Rulers and Ruled
 
During Captain Cook's first visit to Tahiti in 1769,
a curious group came walking up to his camp one day.
Most of them were men, but one was the woman that
Wallis' crew had thought was a queen. She was walking
beside a man carrying a little boy on his shoulders.
 
Actually the woman, Oborea, was the boy's mother. He
was being carried not because he was tired but because
he was a great chief and therefore too sacred to touch
the ground.
 
MAUI, HAWAII
The Valley Island
 
The beautiful isle of Maui came about as the result of
the fiery explosion of two volcanoes. To one side of
Maui is 5,788 foot Pu'u Kukui and on the other
Haleakala, a 10,023 foot dormant volcano with a
Manhattan size crater that houses a vast desert of
unusual flora including the rare Silversword. Add to
this 125 miles of dazzling coastline, both dramatic
and diverse for surfing, snorkelling and canoeing,
plus waterfalls plunging a thousand feet, rainforest
bursting with colour and exotic vegetation and a
start lunar landscape, so barren that the astronauts
practised their moon landing here and you have the
extraordinary island of Maui.
 
AUSTRALIA - THE RISE OF BUSHRANGING
 
Gold was an attraction to more than the honest
labourer. The promise of easy and instant wealth
also brought to the North-east a host of ex-convicts,
ruffians and criminals of the worst type whose
presence demanded proper law enforcement. Only
a few months after the first strikes in the May Day
Hills the constabulary erected a primitive slab hut to
restrain prisoners. This was soon given over in 1853
to wooden stockade, but even this proved insufficient
to cater for the needs of those boisterous times and
by 1857 the present gaol was in construction. This
massive structure with its huge rugged walls and
watchtowers was completed in 1860 for the sum of
$94,000 and through its cells passed Ned Kelly,
Harry Power and the bushranger Shehan, the
last-named being hanged at Beechworth Gaol in
1865.
 
AUSTRALIA - BUSHRANGERS-
NED KELLY AND OTHERS
 
Highway robbery is not a uniquely Australian
phenomenon. There have been 'knights of the
road' in England and bandits in America and
elsewhere, but in 19th-century Australia bushranging
was so widespread, and so strongly supported by
public sympathy, that it amounted to a leading
national institution.

OCEANIA WEB SITES

AUSTRALIA - THE DE BORTOLIS

A Place At The Table

Wine critic Huon Hooke can still remember the first
time he tasted Darren De Bortoli's dessert wine. The
two men had been students together at Roseworthy,
Australia's first viticulture college, where they had forged
a friendship based on a shared passion for wine, despite
very different backgrounds. Huon, with a rowing blue
from Geelong Grammar, had grown up in the Anglo-
Protestant heartland of the Australian establishment.
 
Darren was the grandson of an illiterate Italian migrant.
Both had graduated in 1982 determined to make an
impact on a burgeoning wine scene; however, while
Huon moved to Sydney to work as a wine merchant,
Darren returned to the family farm. A year later, Huon
and his colleagues got a call out of the blue. 'He said,
"Hey guys, I've got something to show you. can I send
you a bottle or something?" And we said, "What is it?"
and he said, "It's a sweet wine." We were not that
impressed, but Darren sent down half-a-dozen bottles
of 1982 Botrytis semillon, just taken as samples out of
the tank. No label, nothing and I think they sat in a
corner for a few days. We really weren't that interested
in opening the bottles. and when we did, just out of
curiosity, and poured a glass of this stuff, which was
like nectar, golden in colour and very sweet and rich
and honeyed, our jaws hit the floor. It blew our heads
off.'
 
Tucked modestly away in the big end of town, the
Melbourne Club is a subdued sandstone building,
easily overlooked among the skyscrapers of Collins
Street. But enter its small foyer, and wealth and
power are immediately if discreetly evident in the
nineteenth-century art and ornate furnishings. Sober-
suited men leave their briefcases and mobile phones
with the doorman, for this is a dedicated gentlemen's
club. It is also the place where old money, business
interests and conservative politics rub shoulders over
dinner and drinks - long regarded as the epicentre
of the Australian establishment. It is also the place
Alexander downer was summoned to on Thursday
evening, 19 May 1994, for one of the most important
meetings of his life. The Liberal politician's star was in
the ascendancy. In a party racked by internal
dissension and adrift after ten years in opposition, he
was being considered for the top job. Tony Staley,
the party's president, wanted to see him in one of the
many private rooms. Although the Melbourne club's
influence may have waned since the 1950s, its part
in the anointing of Alexander downer as leader of the
Liberal Party would add to the public perception of
the politician's blueblood heritage.
 
MICRONESIA MYTHOLOGY - MARSHALL ISLANDS
 
In the Marshall Islands, myths explaining navigational
skills, such as the judgment of position and weather from
the observation of natural phenomena were included in
the training of navigators.
http://www.janeresture.com/micronesia_myths/marshalls.htm
Marshall Islands History - The Davis Diaries
 
MARSHALL ISLANDS
Rongelap Revisited
 
In March 1954, the United States detonated a nuclear
bomb on Bikini atoll 1,000 times more powerful than
the one that incinerated Hiroshima. Radioactive fallout
from the bomb landed on a number of neighbouring
islands, including Rongelap atoll, 100 miles to the east.
This atoll is still too contaminated to be inhabited.
 
MICRONESIA POSTCARDS AND PICTURE GALLERIES
 
The countries of Micronesia cover a vast expanse
of Oceania with each having  its own culture, history,
customs, rituals, myths and legends, lifestyle and
topographical personality. I do hope that you enjoy
your visit to Micronesia Postcards and Picture
Galleries.
http://www.janeresture.com/michome/postcards.htm
 
THE BATTLE FOR NAURU
 
This Web site details a raid made by the Seventh Air
Force Command of the United States Air Force stationed
in Hawaii on the Japanese occupied island of Nauru during
World War 2. The plane first proceeded to the island of
Funafuti some 900 miles from Nauru where the U.S. had
established a base. Two days after arriving in Funafuti, the
raid on Nauru was undertaken and was successful beyond
all expectations. The Japanese Phosphate Manufacturing
Plant had been completely destroyed and it would be
many months before the Japanese could restore their
destroyed machinery involved in the refining of the
phosphates. The following day, the Japanese retaliated
by attacking the U.S. base on Funafuti on two occasions
and two U.S. bombers were destroyed.
 
GUAM POSTCARDS AND PICTURE GALLERIES
 
Guam is the largest and most southern island in the
Mariana Islands archipelago in the western north
Pacific Ocean. It is the most developed island in
Micronesia, it serves as a transportation and
communications hub and is the gateway to Micronesia.
http://www.janeresture.com/guam_gallery/index.htm
 
INTERESTING PLACES
 
ISLANDS OF THE HAWAIIAN CHAIN
 
We tend to see only the peaks of the mighty range
of volcanic mountains which form the Hawaiian Islands.
These islands stretch for almost 2,000 miles from the
southeast side of Hawaii to the islands of Midway and
Kure. There are basically three kinds of islands in the
Hawaiian archipelago - the eight main islands at the
southern end of the chain, (see Jane's Hawaii Home Page),
the small rocky islets in the middle and the low and sandy
coral islands of the north western end.
 
HAWAII POSTCARDS AND PICTURE GALLERIES
The postcards on the Web sites below are diverse and
different and provide a chance to view images that
represent many facets of this diverse and fascinating
Polynesian nation.
 
HAWAII - THE VANISHING SPECIES
 
Since the Polynesian voyagers set foot on Hawaii about
1500 years ago, at least one thousand creatures have
become extinct. Having evolved in isolation, native
species were not equipped to survive the onslaught of
predators introduced with human arrival. Among the first
species to be lost were the 20 species of flightless birds -
easy prey for hunters - including the large tortoise-jawed
moa nalo, known today only from skeletal remains.
 
HAWAII - BIG ISLAND
Accommodation and Travel Guide
Kona Village Resort
 
Kona Village Resort, located on the site of an ancient
Hawaiian fishing village, prides itself on offering the world's
most precious commodity - peace and quiet. Located on
the Kona-Kohala Coast, this tranquil Polynesian village is
where you can shed the tensions of civilisation without
giving up its comforts.
 
TAHITI HOME PAGE
 
Ever since the famous French impressionist painter
Paul Gauguin painted the Tahitian maidens, Tahiti has
always had a mysterious allure. Officially known as
French Polynesia, it consists of 118 islands spread
over four million square kilometres of ocean in the
eastern South Pacific.
 
SOLOMON ISLANDS HOME PAGE
 
The Solomon Islands, Treasured Islands of Melanesia
and the Pacific, has something for everyone. Comprising
literally thousands of large islands, small islands and islets,
it has a multiplicity of cultures and diversity of people that
is forever fascinating. Indeed the Solomon islands are rich
not only in the diversity of the customs, culture, rituals and
lifestyle of the people, they are also generously endowed
with natural resources. These natural resources include
not only the mineral resources that drew Alvaro de
Mendana who named it the Solomon Islands so many
years ago but also the natural resources of fresh air,
crystal clear waters with an abundance of  fish along
with so many of the treasures that Nature has so
generously endowed.
http://www.janeresture.com/solhome/index.htm
 
SOLOMON ISLANDS POSTCARDS 
 
The following pictures were kindly provided by Dorn
Cranert. They were taken on a visit to the Solomon
Islands, 2003.
 
Solomon Islands Historical Postcards 1
 
SOLOMON ISLANDS - LALAE CHARTERS
 
FOCUS ON NAURU - 2003!
 
Dark clouds are said to be gathering over Nauru. The
phosphate is almost gone and the national finances are
sliding rapidly into the red. However, the flood of asylum
seekers is seemingly unquenchable and Nauru may well
have found another source of significant income. Just
south of the equator, half way between Australia and
Hawaii, Nauru remained in splendid isolation before the
first Europeans arrived. On Nauru, the Nauruan language
is distinct, and is spoken by most Nauruans. Mixed
marriages are uncommon, and ten of the twelve clans
represented by the twelve-pointed star on the national
flag above still exist.
 
HAWAII POSTCARDS VINTAGE COLLECTION
 
The following comprise a rare collection of vintage
historical popular art images, posters and postcards
from Hawaii.
 
MICRONESIA - ASPECTS OF SAIPAN
 
Much of the original Chamorro culture in the Mariana
Islands has now been lost. In fact, foreign influences
make it very difficult for the Chamorros and the
Carolinians to understand their cultural heritage. Both
these heritages are different primarily because the
Carolinians brought with them their own culture when
they migrated from the Central Caroline Islands during
the last century.
 
THE VOYAGES OF THE SOUTHERN CROSS
 
The Southern Cross left Norfolk Island at 4.00 p.m. on
September 17th 1903 for the islands with the first place
of call being Vila (Sandwich Island, New Hebrides).
They went there to get a little more coal, and also to
arrange about having some ready for their return south.
The coaling arrangements of Vila were reported as being
somewhat primitive. They only had a small punt holding 1
8 tons, so it took nearly three days to get 46 tons on
board.
http://www.janeresture.com/southerncross/index.htm
 
CHRISTMAS ISLAND (KIRITIMATI, KIRIBATI)
 
VALIANT BOMBERS 1
 
Tragically the test programme was marred in January
1952 by the destruction of WB21 0 following a wing
fire in flight. During the subsequent abandonment the
co-pilot, S/Ldr. Fostet, was killed. It was three months
before development flying could continue with the
second prototype, WB215, but in June 1953 a pre-
production Valiant took part in the fly past for the
Coronation Review of the Royal Air Force.
 
INTERESTING LINKS
 
COOK ISLANDS
Mangaia
 
That is how one lands on Mangaia. This island is of a
good size, being some thirty miles in circumference. Its
formation is very notable, being indeed rather celebrated
among geologists. It is supposed to be of volcanic origin,
like most of the "high" islands. From the sea, it looks
much like any other place of the same size. But going
inland, one is astonished to find that a mere strip of land
close round the coast terminates the ground available
for walking on.
 
ALFRED RESTIEAUX
MANUSCRIPTS - PART ONE
 
The following is a transcript of Part I (Australia) of
the Memoirs of Alfred Restieaux. They have been
extracted from Alfred's original handwritten manuscripts
which are held on microfilm at the National (Alexander
Turnbull) Library, Wellington, New Zealand.  The
original manuscripts are quite old and are not in good
condition with a number of missing pages. It is a
valuable record of very early colonial Australia. It was
a time when so many of the things we take for granted
were not yet part of colonial Australia. Like so many
others, Alfred was a swagman who carried his swag
from place to place looking for work and hoping to
make his fortune on the diggings. It was an endeavour
at which he was ultimately very successful. 
It gives me great pleasure to be able to present the
writings (as it is) of my dear great grandfather
Alfred Restieaux, starting with his Manuscripts
Part I  (Australia) ... Jane Resture (Restieaux)
http://www.janeresture.com/ar11.htm
 
VANUATU HOME PAGE
 
A tropical paradise, only three and a half hours from
Sydney, Australia, Vanuatu means 'the land that has
always existed'. It is made up of 83 islands formed in
a Y-shaped archipelago which stretches over some
800 kilometres of the Pacific Ocean, half way between
Australia and Hawaii.
 
COOK ISLANDS
Recollections Of An Early Visitor to Penrhyn
 
It was certainly a long way from Liverpool, England and
the muddy Mersey River to the sparkling blue waters of
the Pacific. The following observations about Penrhyn,
including the leper colony, were made at the turn of the
twentieth century by an English lady travelling the South
Seas.
 
JANE'S OCEANIA LINKS PAGE

These are a collection of some highly recommended
links from Jane's Oceania Links Page.
http://www.janeresture.com/links.htm
 
 LETTERS

The following are extracts from a few of the
many most interesting and often touching letters
that I have received since our last Newsletter. I
would very much like to share some of them with
you as I find these letters to be most gratifying
and motivating.

Please join me in thanking these wonderful
people for sharing their kind thoughts with us.

Should you like to get in touch with any of
the writers of the letters below, please do
not hesitate to send me an e-mail and I will
arrange a contact. Certainly, many of our
members and the writers of these wonderful
letters have been in mutually beneficial contact
with each other. Indeed, it is one of the aims
of making these letters available to our
members so that people can share their
common interests in the Pacific Islands.

As an aid to appreciating your most kind
letters, I shall also include, in conjunction
with some of the letters, the relevant Web
sites to which these letters relate.

Miss Jane Resture: I write from Mexico, I hope

you understand my English, it’s not very good.

I write because a few days ago saw an article in

TV about Kiribati, and I saw images, and the

preoccupation of the president Anote Tong by

the effects of the climatic change. In TV the

landscape is beautiful, I can’t  imagine a fascinating

place. But today, I find  the page of Kiribati, and

find your page, and I’m here to write to you. Thank

you by showing the natural beauty of the Pacific

Islands, because you give other reasons of care to

the planet, we live very far, but I think that I have

the obligation to express that you live in a special

place, to surround the nature, with ancestral

traditions that to keep up the identity of your nation.

Congratulations to your page.

Sincerely ........Mexico City   

http://www.janeresture.com/kirihome/index.htm

 

Hi Jane,
 
I have just read an interesting article you have
written on the medical services to the Solomon
Islands. I had an aunty who was a missionary
nurse there. I have some information – but
wondering if you have come across more.
 
Lillian de Berry is her name – she is my father's
sister.  She was in the Solomons from March
1922 – 1933.  She went with the Methodist
Mission and travelled to the Solomons with a
Mr Dent, Mr & Mrs Chivers and Sister May
Barnitt.
 
Please let me know if you have any information
on any of these. I would love to put more family
info together. Many thanks
 
Hello Jane, I am hoping you can assist me.
I am researching my husband’s family, his
grandmother (Alphonsine Louise Cureau) was
born in New Caledonia 28th March 1904 and
migrated to Australia in 1920. She has since
passed away so we are unable to get any
information from her. Are you able to direct me
to anywhere in New Caledonia that I can get
any information at all. I am unable to find any
Australian records confirming her entry here I
only have her marriage record. We are hoping
to travel to New Caledonia in the not too distant
future and I would like to have some information
before we go there. I thank you in advance. 
Regards 
 
Good day to you Jane,
 
--- In early November myself and two crew will be
visiting Ocean Island and Nauru on our sailing trip
from the USA to Australia. I travel on an Australian
Passport and my two deck hands on Finish Passports.
 
What passport requirements are there for visiting
these two Islands? In the event; because of weather
for example; I am unable to visit both Islands, will I
be able to stock up with diesel, fresh water and
rations on either Island? Also please, what radio
channel do the respective ports operate on? look
forward to your reply.
 
Hi Jane, I was very interested in your Fanning Island
web page. I lived there from 1939 to November 26
1941 when the Monterey was diverted and we were
taken to Honolulu for our safety. I was particularly
interested in David Craig’s photos of the cable station
and of the group of children. My father worked for
Cable and Wireless. If David Craig has an E-mail
address I would appreciate receiving it. I do have
photoprints and my father had an 8mm movie camera
of which some film survives.  
Regards ---
http://www.janeresture.com/kiribati_line/fanning.htm
Hello Jane, I am one of the staff in the mathematics
and computer department of the University of the
South Pacific. I am from Kiribati and I would like to
do a research on developing mathematical concepts
of canoe construction in Kiribati. I have been trying
to get information on canoe construction and I noticed
that you have an article on line about canoe construction
in Kiribati, could you please assist me by giving
directions to the literatures on this concepts:
“construction of the Kiribati canoe”.
http://www.janeresture.com/kiribati_canoe/history.htm
 
Dear Jane, In 1915 my grandfather went to Fanning
Island and built the radio tower.  My grandmother
joined him in 1916 on the island and my uncle was the
first white baby born on the island.  I have many pictures
of the towers being built, my grandfather and Mr. Greig
along with the natives who worked the island. I would
be more than willing to share these for your web site if
you are interested. Please let me know, Barbara Cain
Email: babeonaride@earthlink.net
http://www.janeresture.com/kiribati_line/fanning.htm
Dear Jane,
I just finished reading your Story of Blackbirding in
the South Seas and was wondering if you might be
able to help me in my search. I am interested in Thomas
Webb and George Robinson. I am trying to find where
these two men originated from. In The History of the
Bonin Islands by Cholmondeley it states that Webb is
from Wallington, Surrey, England and that George
Robinson is an Englishman. Do you have any further
information? It would be particularly helpful to know
siblings or parents for either of these men, birth/christening
dates of either man, marriage date for Robinson,
Robinson's wife's name, and Robinson's place of origin
in England.  Any information would help.  Thanks so
much for your time! Sincerely
http://www.janesoceania.com/oceania_blackbirding/index.htm
http://www.janesoceania.com/oceania_blackbirding1/index.htm
Hi Jane, I just want to thank you for the resourceful
site. I went to school at UH Hilo from 1977 to 1985.
Thank you again. Sent from my iPod.
www.janeresture.com 
www.janesoceania.com 
www.ourpacificocean.com 
www.pacificislandsradio.com
 
Hi Jane, I was looking at your PNG mythology stories
on your Site and was interested to read about the Ayon
pygmies of inland PNG. I’ve lived in the country for
some time, travelling extensively, and have never heard
of these people. Are they Highlanders? I know the people
from Jimi, WHP, are considered by some to be pygmies.
I look forward to hearing from you. Cheers...
 
Hi Jane, My name is Bob, I live in Canada in the province
of British Columbia, in a town called Chilliwack, I have
spent the biggest part of my life working in the computer
and communications field, for over 27 years now. I have
dreamed of one day coming to Kiribati and using what I
have learned in my work to assist your country. If you
can could you tell me if my skills could be used in your
country? You are the first person in Kiribati who I have
found an email address for so I apologise if I am asking
you questions you can not answer, but I am so fascinated
by your lovely country. Thank you for taking the time to
read my email. Many thanks. 
Hi Jane, I was wondering if you would be willing to add
the Polynesian Cultural Center to
http://www.ourpacificocean.com/austronesian_people/index.htm
The Polynesian Cultural Center focuses on promoting
Hawaiian culture through education, hands-on activities
and a wealth of information on Polynesia and the islands
that encompass it. We feel it would be a very useful
resource for your site's visitors. Aloha ---
Polynesian Cultural Center www.Polynesia.com

Hi Jane, My name is --- and I am an inspiring travel
writer and I am in the process of creating my travel
blog so I can post up my writing. I haven't actually
traveled anywhere yet, but I still write. I have a article
on Cooks Islands and I came across your photos
and I was wondering instead of just copying the
photo I would get your permission first...
f you wouldn't mind can I have a copy of the photo?
I will have photograph by..... and your name. Hope
to hear back from you! Best regards ...
http://www.janeresture.com/cookislands/index.htm
 
Hi Jane, I am currently researching the types of
housing in Papua New Guinea. do you have any
information in regards to the size (i.e. how many
bedrooms, square metres, etc.), materials (wall 
types, floor coverings, etc.), costs of construction,
construction techniques, skilled labour, construction
times or any other information you would be able to
provide? If you are able to provide any information
in regards to the types of housing it will be hugely
appreciated. Thank you for your help!
Kind Regards --
http://www.janeresture.com/png_home/index.htm
Hi Jane, It has been awhile. I was with the group
that put the runway on Makin. Have you heard
anything about the people in the Gilberts (Kiribati)
Hope they were spared. 
 
Hi Jane, I got an answer from you before I had
the second email finish. It came back, with the
gray address.. The first thing I told the wife I hope
it doesn't hit Makin because they have no high
ground. Baker, was the other Island we put a
runway on  that was about 25 feet where the
light house was, and the rest was maybe 6-8 feet 
with no palm trees, just birds, no fresh water. 
 
I guess you know  I have a bunch of ? to ask
you. Just where do you live and what is your
address. That is real important now. 
I was absolutely astounded to read your excellent
web page. What  a great outline to the story. I felt
compelled to email you about this and congratulate
you. I have been researching history for many years
now and have just found within the last few years
more and more coming online about the history of
the Kanakas. My daughter is married to a Quakawoot
boy, so my interest lies there for the children. I feel it is
deeply satisfying to have a sense of your ancestral roots
whatever background you come from. So well done on
this fantastic web page.
 
Hello Jane, I'm --- from the BBC in Sydney calling. 
We're putting a story together for the BBC website
looking at the indigenous culture of Tahiti & are
hoping to speak with you this week by phone or
via email if possible. Many thanks. Regards... 
http://www.janeresture.com/tahitihome/tahiti.htm
 
Bula, I have come across a lot of sites where you
have posted information on history, families and
genealogy topics.
I was wondering if you have come across a
Trader/Settler named HICKS in Fiji during the
mid 1800s. He is mentioned in an except in "Fiji
Islands - A Brief History". We believe him to be
our ancestor and would like to find any information
with regards to him. Anything you may have to
share will be greatly appreciated.
Many thanks. Kind Regards,
http://www.janesoceania.com/fiji_history/index.htm
 
Dear Jane,
I would like to introduce myself, my name is --- I
am a Travel Agent based here in San Diego, California,
U.S.A.  I have a client are interested to go to Solomon
Islands for Scuba Diving. I would like to ask some
information regarding the international flight from USA
to Solomon Islands.  I am not sure where is the nearest
major gateway either Australia or New Zealand or Fiji
before to connect going to Solomon Islands. I know
they have Solomon Airlines flights services going to
Solomon Islands. Your prompt reply in this request is
greatly appreciated. Thank you. Travel Agent -
http://www.janeresture.com/solhome/index.htm
Hi Jane,  
Having spent a day on Fanning Island and mixing
with its wonderful people, I am particularly interested
in knowing if the island was affected by the Tsunami
from the recent Japanese earthquake. Hope you can
help.
http://www.janeresture.com/kiribati_line/fanning.htm
Hello Jane,
Please allow me to introduce myself.  My name is ---. 
I work for a multimedia company ToadShow Pty Ltd
here in Brisbane. We have been contracted to design
and produce an Educational Centre at the Hinze Dam
located in the hinterland of the Gold Coast.

We are very interested in your website, janesoceania
in particular two images that we are seeking permission
to use in part of the display at the Education Centre.
Would it be OK with you if I send you a mock up of
the page on which  we would like to use the images?
The page is 1 of 24 and would appear in a Touchscreen
kiosk. The whole theme of the Touchscreen display is
of the history of the area, Numinbah Valley and the
whole catchment area. I look forward to hearing from
you.
http://www.janesoceania.com/australia_home/index.htm

Hi Jane,
I have some PNG carvings, had them for about
40 years, handed down from parents. I have 2 masks, 2
statues: man and woman, drums axes crocodile, don't
know anything about them, could you help.
http://www.janeresture.com/png_home/index.htm
To Dear Jane,
My name is --- I am a second year student at James
Cook University in Townsville. I am currently taking a
subject on Australian People. We have been asked to
choose a theme and select some photographs that go
along with that theme and analyse them and what they
represent. My group and I have chosen to look at the
Melanesians and the slave trade in the sugar cane
industry. Your website has been more than helpful in
providing us with some wonderful photos for this
assessment.
http://www.janeresture.com/kanakas/index.htm
Dear Jane, I am looking at the photograph which I
am using from your website of the last group of
Kanakas returned to the Solomon Islands in 1895.
I am going to be looking at the deportation of
Melanesian people after the work was done and
modern day Melanesian people living in Australia.
What I wondered was if you had any websites or
references or any other information that might
assist me. Thanking you in advance for your time ...
Kind Regards
http://www.janesoceania.com/australia_kanakas/index1.htm
Hi Jane
I came across your site and it referred to aboriginal  
rock carving symbols in the area of Mt Cameron in
Tasmania. I am doing a history project and would
like to know where they are .. and which pictures
you have that may be of  them.  
Kind regards
Hi Jane,
I was looking at your excellent website on PNG art
and I wondered what the copyright status of the images
is. I'm a freelance designer working on a website for
AusAID on their SPSN (Strongim Pipol Strongim
Nesen) project in PNG aimed at encouraging democratic
governance and equality.  I want to use PNG art as
watermarks and buttons within the site to give a local
feel to the site. This leaflet I just completed for them
might give you an idea of what I mean:
..... as you'll see the images are highly treated
(posterised, blurred, sharpened and cut out to give a
simple 2 tone effect). I was wondering what the fee
(remembering it is an aid project) for using some of
the images on your site might be.
Congratulations on your site.  It's a very interesting
and valuable resource. Best regards
 
Hello Dr. Jane
I am a Planning & Development student at the
University of Guelph in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 
My research paper is on the effects of development
aid on the culture and social structure, as an example
Kiribati.  My interest lies in Kiribati because I visited
your beautiful country twice last year as a NZAid
consultant. You mentioned in your website that
progress has impacted the culture and family dynamics. 
Can you please be more specific, and be able to cite
examples or any points of reference? Any assistance
would be greatly appreciated. Thank you so much,
Yours truly 
 
Dear Jane,
I really appreciate your collection of resources on the
janesoceania.com website,
http://www.janesoceania.com/
I became interested in world time scales after I was
assigned a research project in the field. From that research,
we ended up publishing a great article here: -------, that
covers all areas of world time. I also came across your
site and thought I might pass this link on to you as a thank
you for your wonderful resources. I know this article would
be a great addition to your information, and I'm sure that it
could help many of your users. Let me know what you
think! Best Wishes
 
Hello Jane, I am a teacher on the Gold Coast and the
Gold Coast is bidding for the Commonwealth Games.
Each school has been given a country to promote and
ours is The Cook Islands. Our school has planned a
cultural day  in May and I have contacted many
government departments in the Cook Islands but to
no avail. It is quite important as Sir Geoffrey Henry
President Cook Islands Sports & Olympic Association
Inc will be visiting. We are planning a cultural day
where the school chn will be immersed in a variety of
activities. I was wondering if  would please have a
something the chn could copy or some ideas about a
simple traditional craft activity the chn could do,
bearing in mind they are between 5 and 7 years old.
Thank you. Kind Regards.
http://www.janeresture.com/cookislands/index.htm
 
Hi Jane,
 
TEKAUTU FAMILY NAME   
I’m from Tahiti, French Polynesia and I’m actually
working on my genealogy. Maybe you can help me
on my research. Is there a genealogy forum in Kiribati?
Is there something else to guide my research? Is
there a book with birth date? My ancestor POPOUA
was born in Maiana Island in 1837 or 1839. Her
father’s name is TEKAUTU (or TAURUMI or TAURAMI).
 
Popoua’s daughter is Mary Ann TAPSCOTT, born
26th December 1867 – Maiana – Gilbert Island.
I absolutely have nothing on Popoua TEKAUTU or
TAURUMI. My ancestors related that Popoua was
kidnapped, and was taken from her island…
Ps : English is not my first language…. Thanks
again for your precious help.
 
Hello Jane, I feel privileged to have found you. I
was stationed aboard The Navy Ship  the USS
Granville S. Hall (YAG40) and we had the special
liberty to visit Hull Island in 1967.You may find a
few of my photos that I took with hand writing on
them on line. They took them from an upload I
sent fellow shipmates. No problem glad to share.
 
But My visit there has stayed in my mind all the
days of my life.  Do you Skype? God Bless
 
Mauri Jane, I am also an I-Kiribati and I work for
USP. I am emailing to ask you if it’s possible to
give me permission to borrow some of the images
on your website to use in the course materials that
we are developing for distance students in the Pacific.
 
I am particularly interested in borrowing the images
of Kiribati especially the one of the mangrove tree in
the sea. I will give you and your website full
acknowledgement for these images. I look forward
to hearing from you. Many thanks.
 
Dear Dame Jane,
My name is -- and I would have to say that I am greatly
saddened but not particularly surprised to read of your
concerns about the systematic corruption of the student
records at Immaculate Heart College Taborio, Republic
of Kiribati. It is particularly sad that students and staff
who contributed so much to the college during their time
there have been completely taken out of the record and
replaced by others who have made little or no contribution. 
It is a sad reality that many elements of the church
consider themselves to be above having to explain or
justify their actions and indeed to apologise for corrupting
and distorting the truth, even when it is self-evident.
 
My suggestion would be that when you have the time, to
consider compiling and publishing your factual recollections
of your time at Immaculate Heart College Taborio, and, in
doing so, bring some measure of justice to those students
and staff who have been cheated of their achievements
and indeed their very place in the history of Immaculate
Heart College, Taborio. 
http://www.janeresture.com/kirihome/index.htm 

Hello Jane,
I'm interested in taking a trip to Kiribati so I can

visit Butaritari. A family member fought on Makin
Island during World War 2 and I want to travel
there to honor his memory. Any information you
can provide would be appreciated. Thanks.
 
Hello Jane, I represent Northern Hotels Ltd, the
owners of the old Korolevu Hotel site on Fiji's
Coral Coast. We have been looking for some
time for old images of the hotel from it's time of
prominence as the leading hotel in Fiji. The history
of the site is significant to us, as we wish to
recapture the essence of those grand times in the
site redevelopment. Your archive work is excellent,
and I noted that you have some images of the old
hotel posted.
 
We would like to have access to these, and any
other historic records you may have of the Korolevu
in its heyday. Would you have any idea of how I
could search for press images or stories of some of
the things that happened there in the 50's. 60's and
70's? Perhaps celebrity visits, Royal visits or
government meetings of significance were
photographed or recorded? I would appreciate
any help you can provide.
http://www.janeresture.com/fijihome/postcards.htm

*     *     *     *     *

Many more very interesting letters to be
inserted here in our forthcoming editions,
with my very sincere gratitude to you all, 
the writers, for sharing your kindest thoughts
with us all about our beloved Pacific Islands/
Oceania.

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  * 
IT'S TIME TO CHAT

Our Chat Room is always available for online
chatting between parties and can be accessed
via Jane's Oceania Home Page:
http://www.janeresture.com or the URLs:
http://pub18.bravenet.com/chat/show.php/1489671900
http://pub32.bravenet.com/chat/show.php/2702076781

COMMENTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS

Your valuable comments and contributions
are always most welcome and can be
e-mailed to me at:
jane@janeresture.com

Thank you so much everybody for being
very important and valuable members of
our Oceania Club.

Let us all hope for continuing greater
peace and harmony, good health, prosperity
and happiness, for everybody!

I wish you all the very best and please
take care!

May our God bless us all and, as usual,
I look forward to the pleasure of your
company next time.

Jane Resture

Jane Resture (also on Facebook ) 

 
Jane Resture on Facebook   
Special Message
 
Good day to all our friends here, on Facebook and
to all our many subscribers to our Jane's Oceania
Home Page Newsletter incorporating our Pacific
Islands Radio Newsletter.

It is most pleasing that the number of subscribers
has more than doubled since our last August 2011
Newsletter. No words can adequately express how
much I really do appreciate your welcome response
and I look forward to welcoming you all on board to
share our love for Oceania/Pacific Islands! Thank
you.

I am so very excited about all of the above issues
mentioned in this Newsletter, and I invite you all to
join me in our next, our last Newsletter prior to the
Festive Season - Christmas 2011 and the New Year
2012, by sharing with you all again, in extending 
Christmas Best Wishes as well as Good Health
and Prosperity to and for everybody in 2012! 
 
At this time, my loving and warm Best Wishes and
very sincere Congratulations go to all our students,
wherever you may be at this time - you have all done
us very proud and you are certainly the future of our
Oceania people!

I am taking the liberty of attaching below the URL
of our Jane's Oceania Home Page Newsletter for
September/October 2011. Of course, should you
wish to subscribe in order to receive your free copies
for the holiday season, now is the time to do it before
it is too late!:-) This can be readily done in your spare
time by signing up at the bottom of the attached
September/October 2011 Newsletter as well
as our current Newsletter URL below using 'Topica',
our long time mutual friend and most reliable server!
Enjoy your day!

Christmas 2011/New Year Year 2012 Special Edition:

Some of my recent Oceania/Pacific Islands Newsletters to share:
 
July/August 2012
You are all cordially invited to view the full Newsletter for July/August 2012 at the following URL:
http://www.janeresture.com/janesoceaniahomepage_newsletters_JulyAugust2012/index.htm
January/February 2012
Christmas/New Year
Shared Thoughts

 
Sent out to all subscribers in E-mail formats and placed here on Web site format on 12th & 17th October 2011 respectively.
Contents and formats of this Newsletter are:
Copyright © 1999-2012 by Jane Resture
Owner, Webmaster and Broadcaster: Jane Resture 
Any infringements of this Copyright will be considered as a violation of Copyright.

         

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 (E-mail: jane@pacificislandsradio.com -- Rev. 9th October 2012)